Saturday, October 13, 2012

New Indian Bank notes with Rupee Symbol.
Rs.50 - Inset  "L" , 2012

RS.1000 - Inset "R" , 2011

Saturday, February 4, 2012

New Indian Bank notes with Rupee Symbol.

The Reserve Bank of India has issued new notes with  rupee symbol in 2011 , denomination of notes are as follows  :

1. Rupee 1000                                     
2. Rupee 500
3. Rupee 100
4. Rupee 10

As of January 2012, the new Indian rupee sign has been incorporated in the currency notes in the denomination of 10, 100, 500 and 1000


Each banknote has its amount written in 15 languages. On the obverse side, the denomination is written in English and Hindi. On the reverse of each note is a language panel that displays the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India. The languages are displayed in the alphabetical order. The languages included on the panel are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

Friday, October 21, 2011

A new Series of Coins with Rupee Symbol - 2011

A new series of coins with improved design and revised size in the denomination of 50 paise, Rs. 1, 2, 5, and 10 were released in July 2011.

The present series of coins of 50 paise, Rs. 1, 2, and 5 contain a flowery design and for Rs.10, the number of petals have been brought down to 10 in place of the existing 15 petals. The parallel lines on the obverse side of the Rs. 10 coin have been removed and the size of Ashok Pillar has been increased.

The new series of coins have been introduced with the new rupee symbol and with features at the edge, which make it convenient for easy recognition and distinction. The design has been adopted keeping in mind the difficulties faced by visually challenged people.

Sunday, October 9, 2011


The Mughal Dynasty was founded by Babur in 1526 as the result of his victory over the last Lodi Sultan, Ibrahim, in the first battle of Panipat in 1526.  This victory enabled Babur to occupy Delhi and Agra.  Then in 1527 Babur defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at the battle of Khanua and thus broke Rajput resistance.  Lastly, in 1528 Babur inflicted a second defeat on the Afghans in the battle of the Ghagra and thus extended his rule over Bihar and Bengal.  These three victories made Babur the Emperor of northern India and enabled him to found the Mughal dynasty which ruled in India from 1526 to 1858.  The dynasty composed nineteen sovereigns of whom the first six, namely Babur (1526-30), Humayun (1530-56, with a break from 1540 to 1555), Akbar (1556-1605), Jahangir (1605-27), Shah Jahan (1627-58) and Aurangzeb (1658-1707) are generally called the great Mughals.

Akbar brought the whole of north India as well as Khandesh and Berar in the Deccan under his rule.  The process of extension was continued by the next three rulers until at last in the reign of Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire came to comprise of the whole of India from the foot of the Himalayas on the north to Cape Comorin on the south.  But events soon showed that the Mughal Emperor had devoured more than he could digest.  Further, Aurangzeb deliberately gave up the policy of religious toleration on which Akbar had based his imperialism, and desired to turn India into an empire for the benefit of Islam.  This radical change in policy led to Hindu revolts initiated, first, in Maharashtra by Shivaji and then spreading among the Sikhs in the Punjab, the Jats in Bundelkhand and in Rajputana amongst the Rajputs who had been since the time of Akbar loyal supporters of the Mughal empire.  Further complications were created by the presence in India of European traders from Portugal, Holland, England, and France who had aspirations beyond trade, and who had better military equipment and organisation and completely outstripped the Mughals in naval power.  Lastly, wars of succession became a feature of Mughal dynastic rule from the end of Jahangir's reign and greatly weakened the Crown.  As a result, the last thirteen rulers of the Mughal dynasty, generally called the Later Mughal Emperors, were weak sovereigns whose dominions progressively declined throughout the eighteenth century - a process which was hastened by the invasions of Nadir Shah in 1739 and of Ahmad Shah Abdali from 1751 to 1767.

The later Mughal soveriegns were Bahadur Shah I, or Shah Alam Bahadur (1707-12), Jahandar Shah (1712-13), Farrukhsiyar (1713-19), Rafi-ud-Darjat (1719), Rafi-ud-Daulat (1719), Nikusiyar (1719), Ibrahim (1719), Muhammad Shah (1719-48), Ahmad Shah (1748-54), Alamgir II (1754-59), Shah Alam II (1759-1806), Akbar II (1806-37), and Bahadur Shah II (1837-58).

The Mughal dynasty which had been founded by Babur's victory at the first battle of Panipat in 1526 and confirmed by Akbar's victory at the second battle of Panipat in 1556, received its death blow at the third battle of Panipat in 1761 when Ahmad Shah Abdali helped by Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab of Awadh, defeated the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, and his Maratha allies and protectors.  Thereafter it dragged on a miserable existence not on account of any strength of its own but on account of rivalries amongst its possible successors, namely the seceding Muslim states, the rebellious Hindus, and the clever and steady English merchants, the last of whom defeated all their Muhammadan and Hindu competitors by exploiting their mutual, undying, suspicious jealousies and hostilities and succeeded in placing their soverignty in place of that of the Mughal dynasty.  The last nominal Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, who had been a virtual pensioner of the English since his accession, was formally deposed in 1858 for his alleged conspiracy in the Sepoy Mutiny and exiled to Rangoon in Burma where he died in 1862.


Weight (gm)


1000 Tola (Mohurs)
Nazarana 200 Mohurs
2,170 -- 2,275
100 Mohurs
1,094. 5
5 Mohurs
Heavy Mohur
Heavy 1/2 Mohur
Heavy 1/4 Mohur
Zodiac Mohur
1/2 Mohur
1/4 Mohur
1/10 Mohur
1/30 Mohur


Nazarana Rupee
Heavy Rupee
Zodiac Rupee
1/2 Rupee
1/4 Rupee
1/8 Rupee
1.2 -1.43
1/10 Rupee
1/16 Rupee
1/2 Unit
1/2 Misqal


2 Dams (double)
39.8 - 40.70-41.40
1/2 Dam
1/2 Falus
1/4 Dam
1/8 Dam
1/16 Dam
4 Tanki
 14.90-15.75 /16.4
2 Tanki
Dam - Later Issue
Tanka (Hammered dum)

The research area & study of these coins of Mughal era are vast subject  that required lot of consultation from experts in this field . The above table has been prepared in consultation of fellow experts from World of Coins forum . I would like to thank expert  members for their  contribution & suggestions.

Being a challenging task and to precisely  list such data would  take  lot of time & energy.
There is further scope of improvement in above table  based on future attribution of  new coins with  unlisted weights & metal composition.

I would appreciate and welcome comments &  suggestions on above data.

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Who Collects What?

As soon as someone starts to collect something a word is invented  to describe the collector. Most end in- ist, which means a person who does something (as a motorist is someone who drives a car or a
violinist someone who plays a violin). Another ending is-phile or philist, which means a lover of something.

        Collectable                           Collector
  1. airmail stamps                     aerophilatelist
  2. autographs                            philographist
  3. badges and patches              scutelliphilist
  4. banknotes                             notaphilist
  5. beer bottle labels                 labeorphilist
  6. beer mats                             tegestologist or tegetologist
  7. books                                   bibliophile or bibliophilist
  8. butterflies and moths            lepidopterist
  9. cameos                                 cameist
  10. cheese labels                        laclabphilist
  11. cigar bands                           brandophilist/ cigrinophilist
  12. cigarette cards                      cartophilist
  13. coins, money, medals            numismatist
  14. corkscrews                            helixophile
  15. dolls                                      plangonologist
  16. eggs                                       oologist
  17. egg-cups                                pocillovist
  18. fags and banners                    vexillologist
  19. gramophone records              discophiilist
  20. keyrings                                 copoclephilist
  21. match books                           phillumenist
  22. matchboxes                            cumyxaphilist
  23. money boxes                          argyrothecologist
  24. postcards                               deltiologist
  25. prints and book illustrations   iconophilist
  26. shells                                      conchologist
  27. stamps                                    philatelist
  28. sugar packets                         sucrologist
  29. teddy bears                            arctophilist
  30. telephone cards                     fusilatelist
  31. arctophile                             -one who collects bear figures
  32. audiophile                            -an audio enthusiast (by extension: one who collects audio equipment
  33. discophile                             -one who collects phonograph records, now also includes CDs.
  34. errinophilist                          -one who collects revenue or tax stamps (NOT postage stamps).
  35. ex-librist                               -one who collects bookplates
  36. exonumist                              -one who collects numismatic items other than coins & paper money.
  37. heortologist                           -one who studies religious calendars (by extension: and collects).
  38. iconophile                             -one who collects prints, engravings, etc
  39. phonophile                             -one who collects phonograph records
  40. pyrographer                           -one who burns designs on wood or leather with hot instruments
  41. telegery                                  -one who collects telephone calling cards
  42. vecturist                                 -one who collects transportation tokens/tickets
  43. xylographer                            -one who makes woodcuts or engravings.